## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON30003

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The relationships between targets and instruments

The simplest mechanism for influencing the quantity and quality of retailing resources is to specify contractually the conditions under which the product is to be sold. This is often not enough, however: no Court will adjudicate on the attractiveness or helpfulness of sales assistants; no individual retailer has control over the total number of retail outlets. Resale price maintenance, territorial exclusivity, and selective distribution can all be used to give incentives to increase the resources devoted to retailing a particular product.

Opportunism is made possible by the existence of asset specificity and sunk costs on one side of the relationship and is discouraged by increasing them on the other. Exclusive dealing relationships and territorial exclusivity are both means of increasing the commitment of the two parties to the relationship. Raising the other party’s sunk costs has the same effect.

One way of securing bias is to build it into the terms and conditions of supply – a stockist of my washing machines may be required to devote a certain amount of space to their display. Bias is intrinsic to an exclusive dealing arrangement. The most valuable bias, however, is that provided by a retailer who appears to be independent. Override commissions to travel agents or insurance brokers may achieve this. So may direct payment for promotion of the product. (These are more usually made indirectly through the provision of cheap loans or equipment.)

Market segmentation may be defended by contractual prohibitions on arbitrage, while resale price maintenance may make arbitrage unprofitable. Exclusive dealing arrangements increase search and switching costs for consumers, and may also raise switching costs for retailers, since they tend to increase the extent to which assets are specific to a particular manufacturer. Non-linear price schedules make alternative sourcing on a small scale expensive. Increasing sunk costs which are specific to a particular producer directly increases the costs to retailers of switching supplier. All these devices also have the effect of creating obstacles to new entry.

Vertical restraints can most effectively be used to extend monopoly through a form of exclusive dealing: purchase of the monopoly product is conditional on buying the competitive products from the same supplier. Alternatively, the competitive and monopoly products are often combined in a single bundle.

The matrix of relationships between targets and instruments is shown in table 14.1. The lists are not exhaustive: nor are the entries in the cells of the matrix complete. But the structure illustrates why vertical restraints pose a general problem for competition policy. Some of the objectives of vertical restraints are essentially benign. In respect of the manufacturer’s interest in the absolute conditions of product sale, for example, it is difficult to detect any divergence between the interests of consumers and producers. The situation is, however, very different when measures to discourage entry are concerned. But the difficulty is that there is no one to one mapping between targets and instruments. The same mechanism may serve both innocuous and anticompetitive ends. It follows from this that rules which are based on the form of a particular restraint are likely to be inadequate. Nor is it possible, or sensible, to look at intent: since there are several purposes to any particular action, there is no reason why even a frank respondent should be clear about the relative contributions of his different motives. That requires that public policy should undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the consequences of any particular restraint: but is it realistic to expect that the antitrust authorities will make an assessment of a rule such as McDonald’s hamburgers must be sold under golden arches?

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The legality of vertical restraints

The basic legal principle is that the Courts will enforce a valid contract. It follows that if the conditions of sale include a vertical restraint, then that restraint binds the purchaser. Exceptionally, the law may make certain restraints ineffective by express provision. This is common, for example, where the manufacturer seeks to escape liability to purchasers of defective products. A seller may also require the purchaser to impose conditions on subsequent purchasers – as is true of the restriction on rebinding books. Transfers of land may often be subject to irrelevant or onerous conditions which were imposed for the first time in transactions which occurred many centuries ago.

Vertical restraints imposed within the European Community fall under the scope of Articles 85 and 86 of the Treaty of Rome. Article 85 prohibits an agreement between undertakings which restricts or distorts competition and has an effect on trade between member states. Article $85(3)$ provides, however, for the exemption of agreements which are of economic benefit. This provision has been used by the Commission to grant block exemption for certain important categories of vertical restraint, particularly the selective distribution agreements between motor manufacturers and their franchisees and the exclusive dealing arrangements between the suppliers of beer and petrol and their retailers.

A vertical restraint may also be an abuse of a dominant position in terms of Article 86. There is no equivalent provision for exemption from Article 86 , and Article 86 has been applied against a range of vertical restrictions, including territorial exclusivity (Grundig), incentive schemes for dealers (Michelin Tyres) and aggregated rebates (Hoffman la Roche).

Some Community states also have domestic legislation which bears on – at least some – kinds of vertical restraint. In the UK, resale price maintenance is generally illegal. Policy towards other forms of restriction broadly follows the European model. A vertical restraint is likely to be an anticompetitive practice in terms of the 1980 Competition Act, which means that if it is found, after investigation by the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, to be against the public interest, it can be prohibited. Raleigh’s refusal to supply bicycles other than through specialist retailers fell under these provisions. If they are undertaken by a firm or groups of firms who occupy a monopoly position, vertical restraints may be the subject of specific recommendation following an investigation by the $\mathrm{MMC}$ of the industry as a whole. This was the basis of the recent recommendations made (but not substantially implemented) for loosening the ties between breweries and public houses. The German position is similar. Section 15 of the Restraint of Competition Act (GWB) imposes a general prohibition of resale price maintenance. There are no per se rules about other vertical restraints, but section 18 allows the Cartel Office to declare specific practices illegal.

# 产业经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7001

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The meaning of vertical restraints

A vertical restraint is a restriction imposed by manufacturers or wholesalers on those to whom they sell their products. We are subject to such restraints more often than we think. The publishers of most books sold in the UK attempt to impose three vertical restraints. One is a requirement that ‘no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without permission’. It limits the use which the owner may make of the book he has purchased: he may not reproduce or transmit it in any form or by any means.

Another is that the book is sold subject to the standard conditions of the Net Book Agreement. The most important of these conditions prohibits a retailer from selling the book at a price other than that fixed by the publisher. Books are one of the small number of commodities which may legally be subject to this resale price maintenance, as a result of a ruling in 1962 that the net book agreement – an agreement registered under the Restrictive Practices Act – was in the public interest. ${ }^1$

A third restraint prohibits the purchaser from rebinding the paperback edition in hard covers. The price difference between the paperback and hardback editions exceeds the cost of binding. In producing two versions of the same book, the publisher hopes to segment the library market – in which he believes demand is inelastic – from sales to individuals. The restriction is designed to limit arbitrage between these two markets.

Each of these vertical restraints is patently anticompetitive in its intention and effects. The first is designed to prevent other publishers from producing the same book at a lower price – it aims to establish a barrier to entry. The second seeks to limit competition between retailers. The third is intended to support the segmentation of the market and associated price discrimination by the publisher. These objectives entry prevention, limitation of retail competition, and market segmentation – are typical of vertical restraints.

Yet it is apparent that a case can be made that each of these restrictions is of public benefit. If other publishers and readers were free to Xerox books at will, sales would be reduced and publishers would find it difficult to recover the fixed costs of typesetting and royalties to authors which their competitors would not have to incur. Resale price maintenance is harder to defend, but representatives of the Publishers Association succeeded in persuading a sceptical court of senior judges that it was in the public interest. Price discrimination permits books to be published, and made available in student editions, which might otherwise never see the light of day, or otherwise be available only to very few readers. Defer judgement on the merits of these arguments for the moment: note only that they can be made. It is the possibility that vertical restraints can be both restrictive of competition and of general benefit, that has made policy towards them such a difficult issue.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Attitudes to vertical restraints

Competition policy has tended to view vertical restraints with considerable suspicion. Several of the landmark cases in the evolution of the antitrust policy of the European Community have been concerned with vertical restraints – such as the incentives offered by Michelin Tyres to its distributors, the aggregated rebate scheme used by Hoffman la Roche to sell its vitamins, territorial restrictions on the sale of Grundig appliances, and the control by United Brands of the European banana market. However, a number of important classes of restraint have secured the block exemption available under Article $85(3)$ from the provisions of the Treaty.

In the US too, vertical restraints have been a principal concern of the competition authorities. In the last fifteen years, however, the interpretation of American antitrust law has undergone major changes and in no area has this change been as radical as in the judicial approach to vertical restraints. Broadly, the Justice Department will now not normally challenge a vertical restraint and a private plaintiff is unlikely to be able to do so with much hope of success. William Baxter – an assistant Attorney General in charge of antitrust policy in the Reagan administration, who both symbolized and was partly responsible for this shift in stance – has been quoted as saying ‘In my view, there is no such thing as a vertical “problem” …. The only possible adverse competitive consequences of vertical arrangements are in their horizontal effects’ (Howard, 1983).

This shift in opinion is the result partly of a general change in intellectual climate.

However, a group associated with the University of Chicago $^2$ has been particularly influential, both through articles and books, and as a result of testimony in particular cases. Their approach begins by noting that the principal interest which the manufacturer of a product has in the conditions under which it is sold is that they should be such as to maximize his sales. This is not often achieved by limiting retail competition. It follows that although vertical restraints may often be anticompetitive in appearance, in some more fundamental sense they facilitate the operation of the competitive process.

Thus if – to take an extreme case – I am a wholesaler or manufacturer of perfume, the environment in which my product is sold is a matter of prime importance. I am selling magic, not simply smells, and magic is not available in discount stores or at cut prices. I therefore insist that my perfume is sold only by attractive sales assistants in luxurious surroundings and if $\mathrm{I}$ facilitate its sale at reduced prices at all, it is only in airport shops where the customer believes (erroneously) that the low price is the result of reduced taxes rather than reduced margins.

Now this view may be mistaken. Purchasers of perfume may be as hard-nosed as purchasers of potatoes and base their choices on a careful assessment of value for money. In that case my strategy will be less profitable than one which does not include vertical restraints. But that is a matter for my commercial judgement and it is no more sensible or reasonable for the competition authorities to insist that I sell my perfume through Woolworths than it is appropriate for them to prescribe the ingredients from which it should be manufactured or the way in which it should be packaged or advertised.

# 产业经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON4438

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Conclusions and extensions

The observed price differences in the European car market have been puzzling to many economists and policy makers. In this article I have used an oligopoly model to analyse to what extent the presence of international price discrimination, as measured by cross-country differences in relative wholesale markups, can explain the puzzle. Three sources for international price discrimination are considered: cross-country differences in price elasticities, differences in quota regimes, and differences in the degree of collusive behaviour. My empirical results establish the presence of international price discrimination. Large differences in price elasticities are estimated, indicating the presence of domestic market power. The domestic firms in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and especially Italy tend to face much lower ownprice elasticities than the foreign firms. Significantly binding quota constraints on Japanese firms are found in France and Italy. The possible presence of collusive behaviour cannot be rejected for Germany and the United Kingdom. The empirical results are encouraging and suggest two specific topics for further research on price differences in the European car market. ${ }^{34}$

The collection of additional data could generate additional insights in our understanding of the price differences. Collecting detailed data on country-specific dealer margins and dealer discounts and on country-specific demographics is a first important way to proceed. In addition, it would be desirable to collect data over a longer time horizon, say the period 1970-95. Several facts indicate that this period has been far from stable. A detailed analysis would provide a good test for the robustness of the empirical results. The descriptive studies mentioned in the Introduction suggest a gradual increase in the cross-country price differences during the 1970s and early 1980s, followed by a decrease (Mertens, 1990). During the same period there have been large exchange-rate fluctuations, which producers may or may not have passed through to consumers. A detailed analysis of the exchange-rate-pass-through relationship would be desirable to better understand some of the short-term price differences across countries. See Knetter (1993) for some first results on exchange rate pass-through in the car market. Furthermore, there has been a continuous decline of the domestic market shares in several European countries (see, e.g., de Melo and Messerlin, 1988). This suggests a gradual decline in domestic market power (as implied by the price elasticities). Moreover, the import quota constraints were introduced in the late 1970s and will only be removed at the end of the century. Finally, the European Commission has taken several measures to better integrate the EC car market and lower crossborder arbitrage costs. Though the deadline for integration was 1992 , many of these measures took effect afterward, e.g., the tax harmonization and the uniform set of technical requirements in 1993. The selective and exclusive distribution system, limiting cross-border arbitrage, is an arrangement for the period 1985-95, but it has been renewed for another ten years, with some additional specifications to facilitate cross-border trade.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The Model

The game that is described in this section is non-cooperative. Overt collusion is ruled out because, at least in North America, binding agreements on price or output are illegal. Nevertheless, when a game is’ repeated many times, solutions that have a collusive flavour can emerge.

In a companion paper (Slade, 1989) I derive a method of generating price wars in supergame models. The market considered is one where oligopolists produce a differentiated product and use price as a strategic variable. Prices are posted and can be observed by all. In addition, rival sales can be monitored. There is thus little uncertainty or scope for secret price cutting. ${ }^1$ Nevertheless, price wars occur. Many real-world markets which are plagued by price wars fit this description – retail gasoline and airline-seat sales are just two examples.

In the Slade model, price wars are information-gathering devices. Demand is subject to periodic but infrequent random shifts. After a demand shift has occurred, unless firms change prices they cannot know the new demand conditions. Incentives are such that considerable price cutting and undercutting occurs before the market settles down to the new equilibrium.

The method of generating price wars is illustrated with two examples. Example 1 involves discontinuous or ‘grim’ strategies in the spirit of Friedman (1971). With a grim strategy, punishment for any deviation from the collusive outcome involves reversion to Nash behaviour for the one-shot game. Example 2 uses continuous strategies as in Kalai and Stanford (1985). With a continuous strategy, small defections trigger small punishments and large defections trigger large punishments. The price-war dynamics inherent in the two examples have much in common. There are, however, testable differences as described below.

# 产业经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Empirical results

Groups are defined according to their class (with one of the groups being the outside good), and subgroups according to their country of origin, foreign or domestic. I used the quasi-likelihood ratio test of Gallant and Jorgenson (1979) to test for several alternative specifications of the nested logit model, all of which were rejected at traditional 5 per cent significance levels, as discussed in detail in Verboven (1994). First, the data rejected the special cases of both the competitive, hedonic pricing model with zero markups, and the simple logit model with non-localized competition $\left(\sigma_1=\sigma_2=0\right)$. Second, the data rejected a more sophisticated version of the nested logit model, with an extra nest indicating whether to buy a car from a ‘high’ category (collecting the three highest classes) or a ‘low’ category (collecting the three lowest classes). Third, the data rejected a version of the nested logit model with an extra nest (at the top of the tree) indicating whether to buy the outside good or a car from one of the other classes. ${ }^{26}$ Fourth, the data rejected an alternative ordering of the nesting structure, in which groups are defined according to country of origin and subgroups according to class. This specification led to an estimate of $\sigma_1$ significantly below $\sigma_2$, an undesirable result in terms of McFadden’s random utility maximization. These various rejections are roughly consistent with Goldberg (1995), who uses micro-level data on the US car market. I also estimated a specification in which cars belonging to the same subgroup behave as a collusive coalition. This specification was rejected by the data at a 10 per cent significance level.

Table 10.2 presents the estimates of the pricing and the demand equation for the unrejected specification of the nested logit in which groups correspond to class and subgroups to country of origin (domestic or foreign). Consider first the estimated coefficients appearing only in the demand equation and not in the pricing equation. Recall that the coefficients on the technical characteristics may be interpreted as elasticities. The elasticity of both horsepower and width have the expected sign and are estimated precisely. Demand is especially elastic with respect to width. Weight and height enter demand insignificantly. This may be explained by the fact that weight and height have an ambiguous impact on their underlying performance variables: weight increases safety but reduces speed/acceleration; height increases size/comfort but decreases speed/acceleration. The significant variables horsepower and width do not have such an ambiguous impact. Country of origin seems to be an important differentiating physical characteristic. Interpreting the country-of-origin variables as capturing differences in taste, consumers have a high preference for German cars, a lower preference for French and European-built US cars, and the lowest preference for UK, Italian, Japanese, and other (mainly East European) cars. To compare the ‘net country-of-origin’ effect in a given country, one has to add the foreign firm disadvantage effect where appropriate. In France, for example, it may be verified that consumers tend to prefer French cars to German cars once the foreign firm disadvantage effect is taken into account. Of course, as argued in the discussion of the data, the country-of-origin variables may capture not only direct taste differences, but also systematic demand-reducing trade restrictions against certain countries.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Unexplained price differences

The above results established the presence of international price discrimination as measured by cross-country differences in relative wholesale markups. Price differences that do not follow from differences in markups are captured by the market-specific fixed effects, to be interpreted relative to Belgium. Note that these fixed effects are substantially smaller than the fixed effects of the hedonic specification (as implied by the hedonic price index in table 10.1 and the formula for each index number, i.e., $p_m=\exp \left(\omega_m\right)$ ). The interpretation of the drops in the fixed effects, relative to Belgium, is intuitive and illuminating. Recall that the hedonic specification may be interpreted as the special case of perfect competition with zero markups. The fixed effects in the hedonic specification then took over the effect of an ‘omitted’ markup variable: as shown above, the estimated markups are relatively high in all countries, as compared with Belgium.

Despite their drop, the estimates of the fixed effects for Germany and especially the United Kingdom remain quite large, relative to Belgium. The data reject the restricted model without further effects in the pricing equation at a high significance level. Although the fixed effects have a broad economic interpretation of capturing both systematic differences in the marginal cost of operating in the various countries (through $\omega_m$ ) and systematic differences in percentage deviations of the wholesale price, $p_{j m}^w$ from the consumer list price, $p_{j m}$ (through $\tau_m$ ) I find them quite substantial; they deserve a more detailed analysis.

A first potential explanation for the significant estimates of the fixed effects may be the imperfect specification of the price elasticities as implied by the nested logit model. As explained above, the price elasticities are an important explanation of crosscountry price differences through their effect on markups. If these elasticities are badly specified, they may not explain the cross-country price differences very well, so that the fixed effects may (partly) take over their role. This was especially the case for the (rejected) hedonic specification with its perfect competition interpretation, for the (rejected) simple logit specification with its non-localized competition, and for the (rejected) version of the nested logit model with the reverse nesting structure. Similarly, a more sophisticated model than the present nested logit model, perhaps Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes’ (1995) or Feenstra and Levinsohn’s (1995) model of product differentiation, could capture the price elasticities even better and generate less-significant estimates of the fixed effects.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Product differentiation and the pricing of varieties

Consider consumers distributed uniformly over the unit circle with firms 1 and 2 in arbitrary locations, the shortest arc distance between them being $s$ (that is $s \leq 1 / 2$ ). In figure 7.6, firm 1 is located at $x=0$ and firm 2 at $x=s$. Suppose that firms have no production costs and that transportation costs are quadratic with coefficient $t$ and no linear term. (As explained in section 1, here transportation costs will be the costs associated with transforming a base product into a variety or specialized product.)

In the situation we have in mind each firm produces a base product, corresponding to its location in product space (the circle), and at the first stage it has to decide whether to (potentially) offer the whole array of varieties and price discriminate or just to offer the base product and therefore to price uniformly. In the latter case the supply of specialized varieties is left to outside independent producers which, we will assume, price competitively at cost. In any case, we assume that the costs of redesigning the base product increase quadratically with the distance at which the variety chosen is located. The first-stage choice could also be interpreted as a decision as whether to integrate forward or not. The base product could be a base chemical or steel and the varieties the specialized chemicals or steels. Whatever the interpretation, if a firm chooses to produce only the base product, then it will choose a uniform price, and if it chooses to offer the array of varieties, it will choose a price schedule when the market stage comes. As before we assume that in the mixed cases $(U, D)$ or $(D, U)$ the firm that prices uniformly moves first and therefore figure $7.2$ represents the game tree of our game. This may come about because this firm may need to advertise its price in order to get any sales (put advertisements in the newspapers, for example), whereas the price-discriminating firm may just announce that it will meet the competition (in any case to announce the whole price schedule in an intelligible way may be too complex and costly due to the large number of varieties).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Concluding remarks

We have examined the implications of letting firms choose their price policy in the context of a spatial competition model with given locations for firms. Either firms choose simultaneously price policy and actual prices, or firms may commit to a certain policy (uniform pricing) before the actual price competition takes place. The general conclusion is that there is a robust tendency for a firm to choose the discriminatory policy since it is more flexible and does better against any generic strategy of the rival, although, as we have seen in the models of section 3, firms may end up worse off than if they choose to price uniformly.

Furthermore, in those models, prices that consumers paid under uniform pricing were higher than under discriminatory pricing. This is not totally surprising: denying a firm the right to meet the price of a competitor on a discriminatory basis provides the latter with some protection against price attacks. The effect is then to weaken competition, contrary to the belief of the proponents of naive application of legislation prohibiting price discrimination like the Robinson-Patman Act in the United States, or similar recommendations of the Price Commission in the United Kingdom. Actually, as observed by Hoover:

The difference between market competition under FOB pricing (with strictly delineated market areas) and under discriminatory delivered pricing is something like the difference between trench warfare and guerrilla warfare. In the former case all the fighting takes place along a definite battle line; in the second case the opposing forces are intermingled over a broad area. (1948, p. 57)

Our results are short-run results since both the location and the number of firms are given. We know that the choice of a particular price policy leads to different long-run equilibrium patterns (see, for example, Greenhut et al., 1987, part III). When policy and prices are chosen simultaneously, Proposition 1 (that can be generalized to the case of any number of firms) indicates that, at the long-run equilibrium, firms will choose to price discriminate in the absence of institutional constraints. Thus, at the long-run equilibrium, uniform pricing would not be observed. Lederer and Hurter (1986) have shown that, with perfectly inelastic demand, two price-discriminating firms will locate in order to minimize total transportation costs.

.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Commitment to a price policy

In this section we consider two-stage games in which firms may commit to a particular price policy, uniform pricing $(U)$, or may not commit at all and stay free to choose an unrestricted price schedule $(D)$ at the market competition stage (this involves price discrimination in general). ${ }^{10}$

In order to make the analysis tractable, we will restrict ourselves to simple cases in which consumers are uniformly distributed over some space $X$ (a segment or a circle) and each one of them has an inelastic demand for one unit of the good. Attention will be focused on subgame-perfect equilibria of the two-stage games in which firms anticipate the resulting Nash equilibria in prices at the second stage when choosing their price policies at the first stage. If one firm chooses uniform pricing and the other discriminatory pricing, there may not be a simultaneous move Nash equilibrium (in pure strategies) at the second stage. In what follows, we will assume that the firm which chooses to price uniformly will move first and be the price leader while the other firm will react optimally to the leader’s price. This situation fits the single-basing point pricing (BPP) system in spatial price competition and we will see that it has a natural interpretation in the context of product differentiation. We deal first with spatial price competition and the equilibrium analysis of the BPP system, and second with product differentiation and the pricing of varieties.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Spatial price competition and basing point pricing

We suppose now that consumers are uniformly distributed with a unit density on the interval $X=[0,1]$, with firm 1 located at 0 and firm 2 at 1 . Firms have constant marginal production costs and, without loss of generality, let them be 0 and $c \geq 0$ for firms 1 and 2 , respectively. Transportation costs are linear with slope $t(t>0)$.

Firms may commit to uniform pricing first and then compete on prices accordingly. Four possible cases may arise: $(U, U),(U, D),(D, U)$, or $(D, D)$. If both firms choose to price uniformly, $(U, U)$, then a Nash equilibrium in (FOB) prices obtains at the second stage. If both firms choose to keep complete freedom of pricing, $(D$, $D$ ), then a Nash equilibrium in price schedules obtains at the second stage. If firm 1 chooses to price uniformly and firm 2 does not commit, $(U, D)$, then firm 1 will be a price leader and firm 2 will react optimally to its price (figure $7.2$ depicts the game tree).

This is a natural competitive view of the BPP system with a single-basing point (in which firm 1 is located at $y_1-0$ ). The leader announces a uniform base price, and the price the consumer pays is just the base price plus the transportation cost from 0 to the location of the consumer no matter what firm serves the consumer. Given the base price set by the leader, firm 2 then just undercuts the corresponding full price wherever possible. In other words, the market area of firm 2 is defined by the set of locations for which firm 1’s full price is larger than the marginal production and transportation cost of firm 2. This is so because firm 1 is the first mover so that, for any posted price $p_i$, firm 2 can always capture the demand on $\left{x \in X ; P_1+t\left|y_1-x\right|>c+t\left|y_2-x\right|\right}$ by selling to consumers at $x-\varepsilon$ below firm 1’s full price (see figure $7.3$ where the market areas of firms 1 and 2 are given by $[0, \bar{x}] 0$ and $[\bar{x}, 1]$, respectively, when $\mathrm{c}=0) . .^{11}$ Firm 1 is, therefore, a price leader that sets a uniform FOB price and firm 2 reacts optimally to the leader’s base price by price discriminating. The case $(D, U)$ is similar. We have thus that the mixed cases $(U, D)$ and $(D, U)$ represent single BPP equilibria with base points 0 and 1, respectively. Our approach results in separated market areas and, therefore, no cross-hauling occurs, that is, there is no location where two-way trade is observed. 12

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The model

We consider two firms $i=1,2$ selling a homogeneous product. Firm $i$ is located at point $y_i$ of the $n$-dimensional space $\Re^{\prime \prime}$ (when the model is interpreted in the geographical context, we have $n=2$ ) and produces the product at a constant marginal cost $c_i$. It is supposed that firms are not located at the same point, that is, $y_1 \neq y_2$. Consumers are continuously distributed over a compact subset $X$ of $\Re^n$. The density of demand for the product at $x \in X$ is given by a (measurable) function $f(p$, $x$ ) of the full price $p$ (that is, the price gross of transportation costs) paid by the consumers, and of the location $x$. The transportation cost of one unit of the product is given by a strictly increasing non-negative function $t_i\left(|| y_i-x||\right)$ of the distance $\left|y_i-x\right|$, where $|$.$| is a norm defined on \Re^{\prime \prime}$ with $t_i(0)=0$. In the geographical context typically, because of scale economies in transportation, $t_i$ is a concave function of distance. Examples of norms that can be used are the Euclidean and the Manhattan norms. ${ }^6$

Two price policies are considered: uniform $(U)$ and discriminatory $(D)$. In the geographical context, uniform FOB pricing means that firm $i$ charges the same mill price $p_i$ to the consumers irrespective of their location. In this case, the full price of firm $i$ at $x \in X$ is equal to the mill price plus the transportation cost, that is, $p_i(x)=p_i+t_i\left(\left|y_i-x\right|\right)$. This is so, for instance, because the transportation is under the control of the consumers who use the services of independent carriers charging $t_i(\cdot)$ In the rest of the chapter, we refer to uniform FOB pricing as uniform pricing. ${ }^7$ Discriminatory pricing occurs when firm $i$ bears the transportation cost and chooses a price schedule $p_i(\cdot)$ which describes the delivered price $p_i(x)$ at which firm $i$ is willing to supply consumers at location $x \in X$. The full price of firm $i$ at $x$ is now given by $p_i(x)$. The mill price effectively paid by the consumers, that is, $p_i(x)-t_i\left(\left|y_i-x\right|\right)$, generally changes with their location $x$. In other words, the firm discriminates among consumers on the basis of their location.

When the model is interpreted as a model of product differentiation, uniform pricing is equivalent to firm $i$ ‘s selling a single product located at $y_i$ (in the characteristic space) and consumers paying a full price consisting of the price of the product plus the cost $t_i\left(\left|y_i-x\right|\right)$ incurred by the consumers in using the services of independent producers who adapt firm $i$ ‘s product to their requirements given by $x$. Now $t_i$ is better viewed as a convex function of distance. In the discriminatory case, firm $i$ bears the cost $t_i\left(\mid y_i-x |\right)$ of redesigning its basic product $\left(y_i\right)$ and offers the whole band of varieties. As product design is under its control, the firm may discriminate among consumers on the basis of their requirements. We say that price discrimination occurs when the price difference between two varieties does not correspond to the difference in the respective costs of redesigning the basic product.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Simultaneous choice of policy and price

In this section we investigate whether discriminatory or uniform pricing arises in equilibrium when firms choose simultaneously pricing policy and price, that is, when firms compete in price schedules which are unrestricted. A strategy for firm $i$ is then a price schedule $p_i(\cdot)$ that specifies the delivered price at which firm $i$ is willing to supply consumers at location $x$ in $X$. The delivered price at $x$ must cover the total (production plus transport) marginal cost. If firm $i$ were to price below total marginal cost it could do at least as well, for any given price of the rival, by pricing at marginal cost. Formally, we assume $p_i(\cdot)$ to be in the set
$P_i \equiv\left{p_i(\cdot)\right.$ a non-negative function defined on $X$, measurable and such that, for all $\left.x \in X, p_i(x) \geq c_i+t_i\left(| y_i-x||\right)\right}$.
The potential market area of firm $i$ is the set of locations at which the firm faces a positive demand density when pricing at total marginal cost $m_i(x) \equiv c_i+t_i\left(\left|y_i-x\right|\right)$, that is, $A_i \equiv\left{x \in X ; f\left[m_i(x), x\right]>0\right}$.

The most interesting case occurs when the set of consumers who consider buying from either firm, that is, $A_1 \cap A_2$, is non-negligible (technically a non-zero measure set). Since the product is homogeneous, each consumer purchases from the firm with the lower delivered price. In the event of a price tie, we assume that consumers do the socially optimal thing and buy from the firm with the lower production and transportation cost. This may be rationalized noting that this firm can always price $\varepsilon$ below its rival’s total marginal cost. If, for some consumer location $x$, both firms have the same total marginal costs and charge the same delivered price, they split the local demand. Generically, the set of locations for which $m_i(x)=m_j(x)$ is negligible. To ease notation we will assume this to be the case.

Given the strategies $p_i(\cdot)$ and $p_j(\cdot)$ of the two firms, the market area of firm $i$, $M_i\left(p_i(\cdot), p_j(\cdot)\right)$, is then the set of locations in the potential market area $A_i$ for which, either firm $i$ quotes the lower-delivered price or, if both firms quote the same price, firm $i$ has the lower-total marginal cost. Firm i’s profits are, therefore, equal to
$$\Pi_i\left(p_i(\cdot), p_j(\cdot)\right)=\int_{M_i\left(p_i(\cdot), p_j(\cdot)\right)}\left[p_i(x)-m_i(x)\right] \times f\left[p_i(x), x\right] d x$$

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写产业经济学代考|政策与价格的同时选择

.政策与价格的同时选择 在本节中，我们将研究当企业同时选择定价政策和价格时，即当企业在不受限制的价格表中竞争时，均衡中是否会出现歧视性定价或统一定价。企业$i$的策略是价格表$p_i(\cdot)$，其中规定了企业$i$愿意以何种价格向$X$中地址$x$的消费者提供产品。$x$上的交货价格必须包括总(生产加运输)边际成本。如果企业$i$的定价低于总边际成本，对于竞争对手的任何给定价格，它至少可以通过以边际成本定价来达到同样的效果。正式地，我们假设$p_i(\cdot)$在集合
$P_i \equiv\left{p_i(\cdot)\right.$一个在$X$上定义的非负函数，可测量，并且对于所有$\left.x \in X, p_i(x) \geq c_i+t_i\left(| y_i-x||\right)\right}$

$$\Pi_i\left(p_i(\cdot), p_j(\cdot)\right)=\int_{M_i\left(p_i(\cdot), p_j(\cdot)\right)}\left[p_i(x)-m_i(x)\right] \times f\left[p_i(x), x\right] d x$$

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Testable implications of the models

This study uses data on declining chemical products to test the predictions of the theoretical models. The fundamental question is the following: Is large firm size a strategic liability in a declining industry, and, if so, is this liability substantial enough to outweigh the cost advantage of achieving economies of scale? The liability of size could appear as higher exit rates for large firms (as implied by G\&N (1985) and Londregan (1987)) or as higher rates of incremental capacity reduction (as implied by G\&N, 1990 and Reynolds, 1988). If large and small size confer disadvantages of similar magnitude, the two liabilities might offset each other, so that comparable rates of divestment would be observed for both large and small firms.

The potential strategic liability of size is straightforward to detect if it appears as a higher rate of exit by larger firms. (Such a test is provided in section 4 below.) Less drastic forms of divestment are more difficult to assess, but I present several indicator measures in section 4. These include the rate of incremental capacity reduction, the rate of total divestment (exits and incremental reductions combined), and the change over time in the coefficient of variation in firm sizes.

The G\&N (1990) findings imply that as demand declines, capacity would gradually be shed by the largest firms. Producers with large capacity shares would therefore exhibit higher rates of incremental capacity reduction. But large producers may also show higher rates of incremental cutback for the simple reason that they tend to operate multiple plants. (Note that a plant closure constitutes an exit when made by a single-plant firm but an incremental reduction when made by a multi-plant firm.) To determine whether the strategic liability of large firm size is substantial enough to offset cost advantages due to economies of scale, it is necessary to examine the distribution of total divestment. If the liability of large firm size outweighs the benefits of achieving economies of scale, then large-share firms would account for a disproportionate fraction of the total capacity shed from the industry.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Evidence from prior empirical studies

Empirical evidence on the pattern of capacity reduction in declining industries has been developed primarily from case studies. Many studies have found higher rates of closure for small firms and plants, but only limited evidence has been presented on the strategic liability of large firm size. $G \& N(1985,1990)$ cite case studies of divestment in synthetic soda ash, steel castings, and basic steel. In all three of these industries, early capacity reductions were concentrated among the largest producers. ${ }^{2}$

Studies based on growing as well as declining industries have commonly found that smaller firms have higher exit probabilities. Mansfield (1962) uncovered this tendency in early work. Lieberman (1989) found that smaller entrants had significantly higher mortality rates in growing chemical markets. Evans (1987) and Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson (1989b) confirmed this relation between exit and firm size using broad, cross-sectional data.

Similar findings have been obtained at the plant level. Deily (1988) and Tang (1989) noted that following the onset of industry decline, US steelmakers divested first from their smaller, high-cost plants. In petroleum refining, Londregan (1988) observed that small refineries were more likely to be closed. Dunne, Roberts, and Samuelson (1989a) found a similar pattern of plant closure in a range of industries.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Testable implications of the models

G\&N (1990) 的研究结果表明，随着需求的下降，最大的公司将逐渐失去产能。因此，拥有大容量份额的生产商将表现出更高的增量产能减少率。但大型生产商也可能表现出更高的增量削减率，原因很简单，他们倾向于经营多个工厂。（请注意，工厂关闭在单工厂公司时构成退出，但在多工厂公司时构成增量减少。）确定大型公司规模的战略责任是否足以抵消成本优势，因为规模经济，有必要考察总撤资的分布情况。如果大公司规模的责任超过了实现规模经济的好处，

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON3516

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Capacity adjustment

Whinston $(1987,1988)$ examines an oligopoly in which capacity is adjustable in lumps equal to plant size. In this framework he shows that it is difficult to reach any general conclusions about the pattern of plant closures. When each firm controls several differently sized plants, there is no theoretical prediction about the order of exit. There are several complications. A firm that withdraws a small plant now may be at a strategic disadvantage later if its remaining plants are large. Or a firm with many small plants may find this flexibility disadvantageous against a larger firm with one big plant. Thus, it is hard to separate out the effect of flexibility versus size. To focus on size alone, Whinston considers a special case when all plants are equally sized. There is still a complication; who moves first to break a tie between the two largest firms? The structured pattern of exit returns when the equilibrium play is independent of the tie-breaking rule (a quasi-markov equilibrium) – only the largest firms reduce capacity. Following the proof of theorem 1, we discuss the relationship between our results in greater detail.

In the present analysis we prefer to maintain the assumption of complete information: in the typical declining industry competitors are well acquainted, and the production technologies embodied in extant investments are common knowledge. The payoffs to allowing re-entry or stochastic demand trajectories are probably limited: the papers cited above suggest that smallness continues to be a competitive advantage with these generalizations.

We believe that there is a large payoff in extending the models of exit beyond the all-or-nothing production technology. Although such technologies characterize some industries with large, inflexible plants such as alumina refining (see Ghemawat and Nalebuff, 1985), firms usually shrink continuously as demand declines (soda ash, rayon, baby foods, vacuum tubes, cigars, and electric coffee percolators are some of the many examples: see Harrigan, 1980). We study competition under the opposite of all-or-nothing adjustment; we focus on production technologies where capacity is continuously adjustable. This allows us to model the effect of size differences without the complication of differential flexibility.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Theoretical studies

Recent theoretical studies of competition in declining industries include Ghemawat and Nalebuff (1985, 1990), Londregan (1987), Reynolds (1988), and Whinston (1988). These studies use the logic of backward induction to predict the sequence of exits or capacity reductions when demand is perceived as ultimately diminishing to zero. ${ }^{1}$ While the specific models differ slightly in their assumptions and results, all point out the potential strategic liability of large firm size.

Ghemawat and Nalebuff (1985) analyse the case in which producers have equal costs, demand is declining monotonically, and divestment is an all-or-nothing decision – firms either continue to operate at full capacity or exit the industry. Under these assumptions, Ghemawat and Nalebuff (hereafter G\&N) prove the existence of a unique subgame-perfect Cournot-Nash equilibrium: the smaller of two equally efficient duopolists forces its larger rival to exit as soon as duopoly profits turn negative. The intuition behind this result is that the smaller producer, having lower output, can operate as a profitable monopolist over a longer period of time as demand falls. Recognizing this fact, the larger firm exits first.

Generalized to the oligopoly case, the G\&N (1985) model implies that exit occurs in decreasing order of firm size. Ghemawat and Nalebuff argue that this sequence is robust to the existence of small interfirm cost differences. Moreover, the basic conclusions hold under more general conditions in which industry re-entry is permitted (Londregan, 1987).

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Theoretical studies

Ghemawat 和 Nalebuff (1985) 分析了生产者成本相同、需求单调下降、撤资是一个全有或全无的决定的情况——公司要么继续满负荷运营，要么退出该行业。在这些假设下，Ghemawat 和 Nalebuff（以下简称 G\&N）证明了一个独特的子博弈完美 Cournot-Nash 均衡的存在：一旦双头垄断利润变为负数，两个同样有效的双头垄断者中较小的一个会迫使其较大的竞争对手退出。这一结果背后的直觉是，随着需求下降，产量较低的较小生产商可以在较长时间内作为盈利的垄断者运营。认识到这一事实，较大的公司首先退出。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|ECON7400

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写产业经济学Industrial Economics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写产业经济学Industrial Economics相关的作业也就用不着说。

• Statistical Inference 统计推断
• Statistical Computing 统计计算
• Advanced Probability Theory 高等概率论
• Advanced Mathematical Statistics 高等数理统计学
• (Generalized) Linear Models 广义线性模型
• Statistical Machine Learning 统计机器学习
• Longitudinal Data Analysis 纵向数据分析
• Foundations of Data Science 数据科学基础

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Licensing policy

Beginning in 1972, Du Pont received a ‘large number’ of enquiries about licensing, particularly from National Lead [CX 33C]. But Du Pont seemed to be aware of the implications of licensing for the pattern of capacity expansion in the industry (section 1.4.) and rejected domestic requests without even calculating the royalties that might be generated.

As predicted, overseas licensing presented a different picture. No requests for licences from European producers were entertained, presumably because of Du Pont’s interest in competing directly in the West European titanium dioxide market. But Du Pont carefully explored licence applications from countries outside its zone of interest – Brazil, China, Japan, and the USSR. The Japanese proposal advanced to the negotiating stage but was shelved in autumn 1977 because of weak demand [CX $180 \mathrm{E}]$

The remedy proposed by the FTC in the antitrust case that it brought against Du Pont in 1978 also agrees with our analysis. The FTC’s appeal brief [p. 65] notes that:
Royalty-free licensing would ‘break the chain’ of this pre-emptive process by immediately placing competitors in a position of cost parity with Du Pont . . Licensing with royalty fees would not be nearly as effective in upsetting the Du Pont ‘growth strategy’, since the effect of requiring royalty payments would be to maintain the Du Pont cost advantage over time. Competitors would continue to be at a cost disadvantage by the amount of royalty payment.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|The devolution of declining industries

Models of dynamic competition generally take a rosy view of time: markets expand; better technologies become available; information improves. In this preoccupation with time as an engine of progress, environments in which time is an agent of regress have been shunted aside. Yet, declining industries form an important part of developed economies: more than 10 per cent of the United States’ 1977 manufacturing output was accounted for by industries whose real output had shrunk over the 1967-77 period.

In declining industries the important competitive moves pertain to disinvestment rather than investment. An industry facing decline must reduce its capacity in order to remain profitable. Capacity reduction, however, is a public good that must be provided privately. ${ }^{2}$ Each firm would like its competitors to shoulder the reduction: a firm may even maintain excess capacity – and sustain losses – in order to force competitors to withdraw sooner. The question arises: Who gives in first?

The timing game in a declining industry is therefore a war of attrition rather than a race to pre-empt. In the original model of the war of attrition (Maynard Smith, 1974), each competitor chooses between continuing to ‘fight’ at a pre-specified level of intensity or conceding; the competitor that hangs in the longest wins the prize. Ghemawat and Nalebuff (1985) applied this model, with its dichotomous choice, to declining industries by restricting production to be an all-or-nothing decision for each firm. This chapter, in sharp contrast, allows firms greater strategic flexibility by letting them continuously adjust their capacities as demand declines.

## 经济代写|产业经济学代写Industrial Economics代考|Licensing policy

FTC 在 1978 年对杜邦提起的反垄断案中提出的补救措施也与我们的分析一致。FTC 的上诉摘要 [p. 65] 指出：

## 有限元方法代写

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## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。