## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON1110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The U Shape of the Average Cost Curves

Let’s now move on to the average cost curves. Why do they have the shapes they do? Or, expressed another way, how does our analysis of production relate to our analysis of costs? You may have already gotten an idea of how production and costs relate if you remembered Figure 11-1 and recognized the output numbers that we presented were similar output numbers to those that we used in the cost analysis. Cost analysis is simply another way of considering production analysis. The laws governing costs are the same laws governing productivity.

In the short run, output can be raised only by increasing the variable input. But as more and more of a variable input is added to a fixed input, the law of diminishing marginal productivity enters in. Marginal and average productivities fall. The key insight here is that when marginal productivity falls, marginal cost must rise, and when average productivity falls, average variable cost must rise. So to say that productivity falls is equivalent to saying that cost rises.

It follows that if eventually the law of diminishing marginal productivity holds true, then eventually both the marginal cost curve and the average cost curve must be upward-sloping. And, indeed, in our examples they are. It’s also generally assumed that at low levels of production, marginal and average productivities are increasing. This means that marginal cost and average variable cost are initially falling. If they’re falling initially and rising eventually, at some point they must be neither rising nor falling. This means that both the marginal cost curve and the average variable cost curve are U-shaped.

As you can see in Figure 11-2(b), the average total cost curve has the same general $U$ shape as the average variable cost curve. It has the same $U$ shape because it is the vertical summation of the average fixed cost curve and the average variable cost curve. Its minimum, however, is to the right of the minimum of the average variable cost curve. We’ll discuss why after we cover the shape of the average variable cost curve.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Relationship between the Marginal Productivity and Marginal Cost Curves

Let’s now consider the relationship between marginal product and marginal cost. In Figure 11-3(a), I draw a marginal cost curve and average variable cost curve. Notice their U shape. Initially costs are falling. Then there’s some minimum point. After that, costs are rising.

In Figure 11-3(b), I graph the average and marginal productivity curves similar to those that I presented in Figure 11-1(b), although this time I relate average and marginal productivities to output, rather than to the number of workers. This allows us to relate output per worker and output. Say, for example, that we know that the average product of 2 workers is 5 , and that 2 workers can produce an output of 10 . This means that when output is 10 , the workers’ average productivity is 5 . By continuing this reasoning, we can construct the curves. Point $A$ corresponds to an output of 10 and average productivity of 5 .

Now let’s compare the graphs in Figure 11-3 (a and b). If you look at the two graphs carefully, you’ll see that one is simply the mirror image of the other. The minimum point of the average variable cost curve (output $=21$ ) is at the same level of output as the maximum point of the average productivity curve; the minimum point of the marginal cost curve (output $=12$ ) is at the same level of output as the maximum point on the marginal productivity curve. When the productivity curves are falling, the corresponding cost curves are rising. Why is that the case? Because as productivity falls, costs per unit increase; and as productivity increases, costs per unit decrease.
The Relationship between the Marginal Cost and Average Cost Curves
Now that we’ve considered the shapes of each cost curve, let’s consider some of the important relationships among them-specifically the relationships between the marginal cost curve on the one hand and the average variable cost and average total cost curves on the other. These general relationships are shown graphically in Figure 11-4.

Let’s first look at the relationship between marginal cost and average total cost. In the green shaded and yellow shaded areas (areas $A$ and $B$ ) at output below $Q_1$, even though marginal cost is rising, average total cost is falling. Why? Because, in areas $A$ and $B$, the marginal cost curve is below the average total cost curve. At point $B$, where average total cost is at its lowest, the marginal cost curve intersects the average total cost curve. In area $C$, above output $Q_1$, where average total cost is rising, the marginal cost curve is above the $A T C$ curve.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECON110

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|The Production Process

As I stated at the beginning of the chapter, supply is the key to the market’s ability to provide the goods people want. Underlying supply is production; firms are important because they control the production process.
The Long Run and the Short Run
The production process is generally divided into a long-run planning decision, in which a firm chooses the least expensive method of producing from among all possible methods, and a short-run adjustment decision, in which a firm adjusts its long-run planning decision to reflect new information.

In a long-run decision, a firm chooses among all possible production techniques. This means that it can choose the size of the plant it wants, the type of machines it wants, and the location it wants. The firm has fewer options in a short-run decision, in which the firm is constrained in regard to what production decisions it can make.
The terms long run and short run do not necessarily refer to specific periods of time independent of the nature of the production process. They refer to the degree of flexibility the firm has in changing its inputs. In the long run, by definition, the firm can vary the inputs as much as it wants. In the short run, some of the flexibility that existed in the long run no longer exists. In the short run, some inputs are so costly to adjust that they are treated as fixed. So in the long run, all inputs are variable; in the short run, some inputs are fixed.

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Production Tables and Production Functions

How a firm combines factors of production to produce goods and services can be presented in a production table ( a table showing the output resulting from various combinations of factors of production or inputs).

Real-world production tables are complicated. They often involve hundreds of inputs, hundreds of outputs, and millions of possible combinations of inputs and outputs. Studying these various combinations and determining which is best requires expertise and experience. Business schools devote entire courses to it (operations research and production analysis); engineering schools devote entire specialties to it (industrial engineering).
Studying the problems and answering the questions that surround production is much of what a firm does: What combination of outputs should it produce? What combination of inputs should it use? What combination of techniques should it use? What new techniques should it explore? To answer these questions, the managers of a firm look at a production table.

Production tables are so complicated that in introductory economics we concentrate on short-run production analysis in which one of the factors is fixed. Doing so allows us to capture some important technical relationships of production without getting too tied up in numbers. The relevant part of a production table of earrings appears in Figure 11-1(c). In it the number of the assumed fixed inputs (machines) has already been determined. Columns 1 and 2 of the table tell us how output of earrings varies as the variable input (the number of workers) changes. For example, you can see that with 3 workers the firm can produce 17 pairs of earrings. Column 3 tells us workers’ marginal product (the additional output that will be forthcoming from an additional worker, other inputs constant). Column 4 tells us workers’ average product (output per worker).

It is important to distinguish marginal product from average product. Workers’ average product is the total output divided by the number of workers. For example, let’s consider the case of 5 workers. Total output is 28 , so average product is 5.6 ( 28 divided by 5). To find the marginal product, we must ask how much additional output will be forthcoming if we change the number of workers. For example, if we change from 4 to 5 workers, the additional worker’s marginal product will be 5 ; if we change from 5 to 6 , the additional worker’s marginal product will be 3 . That’s why the marginal products are written between each level of output.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|ECO2023

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Specialized Production

My discussion of comparative advantage took as a given that one country was inherently more productive than another country in producing certain goods. But when one looks at trading patterns, it’s often not at all clear why particular countries have a productive advantage in certain goods. There’s no inherent reason for Switzerland to specialize in the production of watches or for South Korea to specialize in the production of cars. Much in trade cannot be explained by inherent comparative advantages due to resource endowments. If they don’t have inherent advantages, why are countries and places often so good at producing what they specialize in? Two important explanations are learning by doing and economies of scale.

LEARNING BY DoING Learning by doing means becoming better at a task the more often you perform it. Take watches in Switzerland. Initially production of watches in Switzerland may have been a coincidence; the person who started the watch business happened to live there. But then people in the area became skilled in producing watches. Their skill made it attractive for other watch companies to start up. As additional companies moved in, more and more members of the labor force became skilled at watchmaking and word went out that Swiss watches were the best in the world. That reputation attracted even more producers, so Switzerland became the watchmaking capital of the world. Had the initial watch production occurred in Austria, not Switzerland, Austria might be the watch capital of the world.

When there’s learning by doing, it’s much harder to attribute inherent comparative advantage to a country. One must always ask: Does country A have an inherent comparative advantage, or does it simply have more experience? Once country B gets the experience, will country A’s comparative advantage disappear? If it will, then country $\mathrm{B}$ has a strong reason to limit trade with country $\mathrm{A}$ in order to give its own workers time to catch up as they learn by doing.

ECONOMies OF SCALE In determining whether an inherent comparative advantage exists, a second complication is economies of scale – the situation in which costs per unit of output fall as output increases. Many manufacturing industries (such as steel and autos) exhibit economies of scale. The existence of significant economies of scale means that it makes sense (that is, it lowers costs) for one country to specialize in one good and another country to specialize in another good. But who should specialize in what is unclear. Producers in a country can, and generally do, argue that if only the government would establish barriers, they would be able to lower their costs per unit and eventually sell at lower costs than foreign producers.

Most countries recognize the importance of learning by doing and economies of scale. A variety of trade restrictions are based on these two phenomena. The most common expression of the learning-by-doing and economies-of-scale insights is the infant industry argument, which is that with initial protection, an industry will be able to become competitive. Countries use this argument to justify many trade restrictions. They argue, “You may now have a comparative advantage, but that’s simply because you’ve been at it longer, or are experiencing significant economies of scale. We need trade restrictions on our industry to give it a chance to catch up. Once an infant industry grows up, then we can talk about eliminating the restrictions.”

This infant industry argument also has been used to justify tariffs on new high-tech products such as solar panels. U.S. firms have pushed for tariffs on Chinese solar panels so that they can develop the technology here in the United States rather than have the technology developed in China.

The comparative advantage argument for free trade assumes that a country’s resources are fully utilized. When countries don’t have full employment, imports can decrease domestic aggregate demand and increase unemployment. Exports can stimulate domestic aggregate demand and decrease unemployment. Thus, when an economy is in a recession, there is a strong macroeconomic reason to limit imports and encourage exports. These macroeconomic effects of free trade play an important role in the public’s view of imports and exports. When a country is in a recession, pressure to impose trade restrictions increases substantially. We saw this in 2009 when, faced with the job losses due to the serious recession, there was serious pressure to design programs to keep spending in the United States where it would create jobs and not be spent on imports that would create jobs for other countries.
National Security
Countries often justify trade restrictions on grounds of national security. These restrictions take two forms:

1. Export restrictions on strategic materials and defense-related goods.
2. Import restrictions on defense-related goods. For example, in a war we don’t want to be dependent on oil from abroad.

For a number of goods, national security considerations make sense. For example, the United States restricts the sale of certain military items to countries that may be fighting the United States someday. The problem is where to draw the line about goods having a national security consideration. Should countries protect domestic agriculture? All high-technology items, since they might be useful in weapons? All chemicals? Steel? When a country makes a national security argument for trade, we must be careful to consider whether a domestic political reason may be lurking behind that argument.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determination of Exchange Rates and Trade

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determination of Exchange Rates and Trade

As mentioned above, transferable sources of comparative advantage aren’t the only way to eliminate trade imbalances. Exchange rates are another. The market for foreign currencies is called the foreign exchange (forex) market. It is this market that determines the exchange rates-the rate at which one country’s currency can be traded for another country’s currency – that newspapers report daily in tables such as the table below, which shows the cost of various currencies in terms of dollars and the cost of dollars in terms of those currencies.

The second column in this table reports the price of foreign currencies in terms of dollars. For example, one Argentinean peso costs about 22 cents. The third column tells you the price of dollars in terms of the foreign currency. For example, one U.S. dollar costs 4.5 Argentinean pesos.

People exchange currencies to buy goods or assets in other countries. For example, an American who wants to buy stock of a company that trades on the EU stock exchange first needs to buy euros with dollars. If the stock costs 150 euros, he will need to buy 150 euros. With an exchange rate of $\$ 1.30$for 1 euro, he will need to pay$\$195$ to buy 150 euros $(\$ 1.30 \times 150)$. Only then can he buy the stock. Let’s now turn to a graphical analysis of the forex market. At first glance, the graphical analysis of foreign exchange rates seems simple: You have an upward-sloping supply curve and a downward-sloping demand curve. But what goes on the axes? Obviously price and quantity, but what price? And what quantity? Because you are talking about the prices of currencies relative to each other, you have to specify which currencies you are using. Figure 9-2 presents the supply of and demand for euros in terms of dollars. Notice that the quantity of euros goes on the horizontal axis and the dollar price of euros goes on the vertical axis. When you are comparing currencies of only two countries, the supply of one currency equals the demand for the other currency. To demand one currency, you must supply another. In this figure, I am assuming that there are only two trading partners: the United States and the European Union. This means that the supply of euros is equivalent to the demand for dollars. The Europeans who want to buy U.S. goods or assets supply euros to buy dollars. Let’s consider an example. Say a European wants to buy a Dell computer made in the United States. She has euros, but Dell wants dollars. So, to buy the computer, she or Dell must somehow exchange euros for dollars. She is supplying euros in order to demand dollars. The supply curve of euros is upward-sloping because the more dollars European citizens get for their euros, the cheaper U.S. goods and assets are for them and the greater the quantity of euros they want to supply for those goods. Say, for example, that the dollar price of one euro rises from$\$1.30$ to $\$ 1.35$. That means that the price of a dollar to a European has fallen from 0.78 euro to 0.74 euro. For a European, a good that cost$\$100$ now falls in price from 78 euros to 74 euros. U.S. goods are cheaper, so the Europeans buy more U.S. goods and more dollars, which means they supply more euros.
The demand for euros comes from Americans who want to buy European goods or assets. The demand curve is downward-sloping because the lower the dollar price of euros, the more euros U.S. citizens want to buy, using the same reasoning I just described.

The market is in equilibrium when the quantity supplied equals the quantity demanded. In my example, when supply is $S_0$ and demand is $D_0$, equilibrium occurs at a dollar price of $\$ 1.30$for one euro. ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Exchange Rates and Trade The exchange rate plays an important role in the demand for a country’s domestic goods. We can see that by considering both the domestic supply of tradable goodsthose goods that can be produced in one country and sold in another-and the international supply of tradable goods on the same graph. We do so in Figure 9-3. In it, for simplicity we assume that the world supply of goods is perfectly elastic (horizontal) at$P_1$. That is, foreign countries are willing to sell as much as is demanded at a single price. With free trade, if domestic producers of tradable goods want to sell any goods, they must match this world price. If consumers can buy all the goods they want at the world price, why pay more? Domestic supply of tradable goods is determined by the wage and the productivity of workers in the United States-as quantity supplied rises, suppliers have to charge higher prices to cover higher costs of production. The supply curve, therefore, reflects the comparative advantages of U.S. producers with respect to world producers. It is upward sloping because as output increases, the cost of production rises relative to the cost of world production. If the world supply is$S_{\mathrm{W} 1}$, the United States has a comparative advantage for goods up until$Q_1$, where the domestic supply intersects the world supply. World producers have a comparative advantage in the production of goods to the right of$Q_1$. Trade for an economy that faces global competition needs to take into account world supply, which is horizontal at the world price for tradable goods.${ }^2$If the world supply curve intersects domestic supply and demand at the domestic equilibrium price as it does when the world supply curve is$S_{W 0}$, imports will be exactly offset by exports. If the world price is below the domestic equilibrium, as it is when the world supply curve is$\mathrm{S}_{\mathrm{W} 1}$, a country is running a trade deficit. In this figure the world price is$P_1$, which results in a trade deficit is$Q_2-Q_1. Indefinite trade deficits are not sustainable. A decrease in the domestic economy’s exchange rates, relative declines in wages, or improvements in comparative advantage can eliminate the trade deficit. Let’s consider how exchange rates adjustment can eliminate a U.S. trade deficit with China. (We are using China to represent the rest of the world.) Exchange rates affect a trade balance through their impact on relative comparative advantages. The reason is that as the exchange rate changes the price of a country’s goods to people in other countries changes. In the case of dollars and yuan, if the dollar depreciates U.S. citizens will pay more U.S. dollars for each good they buy from China, which means that the relative price of foreign goods rises. So, a depreciation of the domestic country’s currency will shift the world supply curve up, making it easier for U.S. producers to compete. Similarly, an appreciation will shift the world supply curve down, making it harder for a country to compete globally. In theory, the exchange rate adjustment can bring two countries’ comparative advantages into alignment, eliminating any trade imbalance. The assumption that exchange rates will adjust to bring trade into balance underlies the story economists tell about comparative advantages. That story assumes that comparative advantages net out so the trade deficit of both countries is zero. # 微观经济学代考 ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Determination of Exchange Rates and Trade 如上所述，可转移的比较优势来源并不是消除贸易不平衡的唯一途径。汇率是另一个原因。外汇市场称为外汇市场。正是这个市场决定了汇率——一个国家的货币可以兑换另一个国家的货币的汇率——报纸每天都会以如下表格的形式进行报道，这些表格显示了以美元计算的各种货币的成本，以及以这些货币计算的美元成本。 本表第二栏以美元表示外币的价格。例如，1阿根廷比索约为22美分。第三列是用外币表示的美元价格。例如，1美元兑换4.5阿根廷比索。 人们交换货币来购买其他国家的商品或资产。例如，一个美国人想要购买一家在欧盟证券交易所交易的公司的股票，首先需要用美元购买欧元。如果股票价格为150欧元，他需要购买150欧元。在1.30美元兑1欧元的汇率下，他需要支付195美元才能购买150欧元(1.30美元乘以150美元)美元。只有这样他才能买到股票。 现在让我们转向外汇市场的图形分析。乍一看，外汇汇率的图形分析似乎很简单:有一条向上倾斜的供给曲线和一条向下倾斜的需求曲线。但是坐标轴上是什么呢?显然是价格和数量，但什么价格呢?什么量?因为你讨论的是相对于其他货币的价格，你必须指定你使用的是哪种货币。 图9-2以美元表示欧元的供求关系。注意，欧元的数量是横轴，欧元的美元价格是纵轴。当你只比较两个国家的货币时，一种货币的供给等于对另一种货币的需求。要想得到一种货币，你必须提供另一种货币。在这个数字中，我假设只有两个贸易伙伴:美国和欧盟。这意味着欧元的供给等于美元的需求。想要购买美国商品或资产的欧洲人提供欧元来购买美元。让我们考虑一个例子。比方说，一个欧洲人想买一台美国制造的戴尔电脑。她有欧元，但戴尔想要美元。因此，为了购买这台电脑，她或戴尔必须以某种方式将欧元兑换成美元。她在供应欧元以换取美元。 欧元的供给曲线是向上倾斜的，因为欧洲公民用欧元获得的美元越多，美国的商品和资产对他们来说就越便宜，他们想要为这些商品提供的欧元数量就越大。例如，一欧元的美元价格从1.30美元上升到1.35美元。这意味着1美元兑1欧元的汇率已从0.78欧元降至0.74欧元。对于欧洲人来说，一件价值100美元的商品现在从78欧元跌到了74欧元。美国商品更便宜，所以欧洲人购买更多的美国商品和美元，这意味着他们提供更多的欧元。 对欧元的需求来自想要购买欧洲商品或资产的美国人。需求曲线是向下倾斜的，因为欧元的美元价格越低，美国公民想买的欧元就越多，道理和我刚才讲的一样。 当供给量等于需求量时，市场处于均衡状态。在我的例子中，当供给为S_0$，需求为$D_0$时，均衡发生在1欧元兑$ 1.30$的美元价格。 ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Exchange Rates and Trade 汇率对一国国内商品的需求起着重要作用。我们可以看到，通过考虑可贸易商品的国内供给——那些可以在一个国家生产并在另一个国家销售的商品——以及在同一张图上的可贸易商品的国际供给。如图9-3所示。这里，为简单起见，我们假设世界商品供给在$P_1$处是完全弹性(水平)的。也就是说，外国愿意以一个单一的价格出售尽可能多的需求。在自由贸易中，如果国内可贸易商品的生产商想要出售任何商品，他们必须与这个世界价格相匹配。如果消费者可以以国际价格买到他们想要的所有商品，为什么还要花更多的钱呢? 可贸易商品的国内供给是由美国工人的工资和生产率决定的——随着供给量的增加，供应商不得不收取更高的价格来支付更高的生产成本。因此，供给曲线反映了美国生产商相对于世界生产商的比较优势。它是向上倾斜的，因为随着产量的增加，生产成本相对于世界生产成本上升。如果世界供应量为$  $，美国在$  (国内供应量与世界供应量相交)之前的商品上具有比较优势。世界生产商在生产Q_1右边的商品方面具有比较优势。

Similarly, if a producer receives more than the price she would be willing to sell it for, she too receives a net benefit. Economists call this gain producer surplus-the price the producer sells a product for less the cost of producing it. It is represented by the area above the supply curve but below the price the producer receives. Thus, with the price at equilibrium $(\$ 5)$, producer surplus is represented by the brown area. What’s good about market equilibrium is that it makes the combination of consumer and producer surpluses as large as it can be. To see this, say that for some reason the equilibrium price is held at$\$6$. Consumers will demand only 4 units of the good, and some suppliers are not able to sell all the goods they would like. The combined producer and consumer surplus will decrease, as shown in Figure 7-1(b). The gray triangle represents lost consumer and producer surplus. In general, a deviation of price from equilibrium lowers the combination of producer and consumer surplus. This is one of the reasons economists support markets and why we teach the supply/demand model. It gives us a visual sense of what is good about markets: By allowing trade, markets maximize the combination of consumer and producer surplus.

For straight-line demand curves, the amount of surplus can be determined by calculating the area of the relevant triangle or rectangle. For example, in Figure 7-1(a), the consumer surplus triangle has a base of 5 and a height of $5(10-5)$. Since the area of a triangle is $1 / 2$ (base $\times$ height), the consumer surplus is 12.5 units. Alternatively, in Figure 7-1(b), the lost surplus from a price above equilibrium price is 1 . This is calculated by determining that the height of the triangle (looked at sideways) is $1(5-4)$ and the base is $2(6-4)$, making the area of lost surplus $1 / 2 \times 2 \times 1=1$. In this case, the consumer and producer share in the loss equally. The higher price transfers 4 units of surplus from consumer to producer, calculated by determining the area of the rectangle (base $\times$ height) created by the origin and output, 4 , and prices 5 and 6 , which equals $(6-5) \times(4-0)=4$. This leaves the consumer with 8 units of surplus. ${ }^1$

To fix the ideas of consumer and producer surplus in your mind, let’s consider a couple of real-world examples. Think about the water you drink. What does it cost? Almost nothing. Given that water is readily available, it has a low price. But since you’d die from thirst if you had no water, you are getting an enormous amount of consumer surplus from that water. Next, consider a ballet dancer who loves the ballet so much he’d dance for free. But he finds that people are willing to pay to see him and that he can receive $\$ 4,000$a performance. He is receiving producer surplus. ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Burden of Taxation Now that you have seen how market equilibrium can provide benefits to producers and consumers, as measured by producer and consumer surplus, let’s see how taxes affect that surplus. You already know that taxes on suppliers shift the supply curve up. In most cases, equilibrium price (including the tax) rises and equilibrium quantity declines. Taxes on consumers shift the “after-tax” demand curve down, lowering equilibrium quantity and also lowering the price paid to suppliers. But the price demanders pay inclusive of the tax rises (which is why the equilibrium quantity demanded falls). In both cases, taxes reduce, or limit, trade. Economists often talk about the limitations that taxes place on trade as the burden of taxation. Figure 7-2 provides the basic framework for understanding the burden of taxation. For a given good, a per-unit tax$t$paid by the supplier increases the price at which suppliers are willing to sell that good. The effect of the tax is shown by a shift upward of the supply curve from$S_0$to$S_1$. The equilibrium price of the good rises and the quantity sold declines. Before the tax, consumers pay$P_0$and producers keep$P_0$. Consumer surplus is represented by areas$A+B+C$, and producer surplus is represented by areas$D+E+F$. With the tax$t$, equilibrium price rises to$P_1$and equilibrium quantity falls to$Q_1$. Consumers now pay a higher price$P_1$, but producers keep less, only$P_1-t$. Tax revenue paid equals the tax$t$times equilibrium quantity$Q_1$, or areas$B$and$D$. The total cost to consumers and producers is taxes they pay plus lost surplus because of fewer trades. Consumers pay area$B$in tax revenue and lose area$C$in consumer surplus. Producers pay area$D$in tax revenue and lose area$E$in producer surplus. The triangular area$C+E$represents a cost of taxation over and above the taxes paid to government. It is lost consumer and producer surplus that is not gained by government. The loss of consumer and producer surplus from a tax is known as deadweight loss. Deadweight loss is shown graphically by the welfare loss triangle- a geometric representation of the welfare cost in terms of misallocated resources caused by a deviation from a supply/demand equilibrium. Keep in mind that with the tax, quantity sold declines. The loss of welfare, therefore, represents a loss for those consumers and producers who, because of the tax, no longer buy or sell goods. # 微观经济学代考 ## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Producer and Consumer Surplus 我们通过观察经济学家如何衡量市场对消费者和生产者的好处，开始讨论税收和政府干预的影响;通过考虑供给和需求曲线所告诉我们的，我们可以看到好处。每条曲线都告诉我们个人愿意为一种商品支付多少(在需求情况下)或接受多少(在供给情况下)。因此，在图7-1(a)中，消费者愿意为2单位商品每人支付8美元。供应商愿意以每件2美元的价格出售2件。 如果消费者支付的价格低于他愿意支付的价格，他最终会获得净收益——商品对他的价值减去他为该商品实际支付的价格。因此，需求曲线和他支付的价格之间的距离就是消费者的净收益。经济学家称这种净效益为消费者剩余，即消费者从购买产品中获得的价值减去其价格。它由需求曲线下方和个人支付价格上方的面积表示。因此，当价格处于均衡$($5)$时，消费者剩余用蓝色区域表示。

I mention this point because someone forgot about it when the city of Washington, D.C., raised the tax on a gallon of gasoline by 8 cents, a rise at that time of about 10 percent (this was case 2 in our discussion of calculating elasticities on p. 124). In response, monthly gasoline sales in Washington fell from 16 million gallons to less than 11 million gallons, a 40 percent decrease! The demand for gas in Washington was not inelastic, as it was for the United States as a whole; it was very elastic $\left(E_D=4\right)$. Washingtonians went elsewhere to buy gas.
The fact that smaller geographic areas have more elastic demands limits how highly state and local governments can tax goods relative to their neighboring localities or states. Where there are tax differences, new stores open all along the border and existing stores expand to entice people to come over that border and save on taxes. For example, the liquor tax is higher in Vermont than in New Hampshire, so it isn’t surprising that right across the border from Vermont, New Hampshire has a large number of liquor stores. Here’s one final example: If you look at license plates in Janzen Beach, Oregon (right across the Washington state border), you’ll see a whole lot of Washington license plates. Why? If you answered that it likely has something to do with differential sales taxes in Washington and Oregon, you’ve got the idea.

# 微观经济学代考

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Elasticity Is Independent of Units

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Elasticity Is Independent of Units

Before continuing, notice that elasticity measures the percentage, not the unit, change in variables. Using percentages allows us to measure responsiveness independent of units, making comparisons among different goods easier. Say a $\$ 1$increase in the price of a$\$1,000$ computer decreases the quantity demanded by 1 , from 10 to 9 . Say also that a $\$ 1$increase in the price of a pen, from$\$1$ to $\$ 2$, decreases quantity demanded by 1 -from 10,000 to 9,999 . Using unit changes, the$\$1$ price increase reduced the quantities demanded for both pens and computers by 1 . But such a comparison of unit changes is not very helpful. To see that, ask yourself if you were planning on raising your price, which good you’d rather be selling.

The computer price increased by $1 / 1,000$ of its original price, a relatively small percentage increase, and quantity demanded declined by $1 / 10$ of original sales, a large percentage decline. The percentage decline in quantity demanded exceeded the percentage rise in price, so your total revenue (Price $\times$ Quantity) would decrease. The percentage increase in price of pens was relatively large100 percent – and the percentage decline in quantity demanded was relatively small- $1 / 100$ of 1 percent. So if you raise the price of pens, total revenue increases. Clearly, if you’re raising your price in these examples, you’d rather be selling pens than computers.

By using percentages, this is made clear: With computers, a 0.1 percent increase in price decreases quantity demanded by 10 percent, so the elasticity is 100 . With pens, a 100 percent increase in price decreases quantity demanded by 0.01 percent-an elasticity of 0.0001 .

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Calculating Elasticities

To see that you’ve got the analysis down, calculate price elasticity of demand or supply in the following three real-world examples:
Case 1: When the City of London raised the daily toll motorists pay to drive in central London by 46 percent the number of motorists driving in central London fell by 3 percent.
Case 2: In the 1980 s, when gasoline prices rose by 10 percent in Washington, D.C., the quantity of gasoline demanded there fell by 40 percent.
Case 3: When the minimum wage in Vermont rose by 11 percent, the quantity of labor supplied for relevant jobs increased by about 1.7 percent.
In the first case, price elasticity of demand is 0.07 . The quantity of motorists in London did not change much when the toll was increased. Elasticity was less than 1 , so demand was inelastic. In the second case, price elasticity of demand is 4 . The quantity of gas demanded in Washington, D.C., responded by a lot to a relatively small change in gas prices. Elasticity was greater than 1 , so demand was elastic. The price elasticity of supply in the third case is 0.15 . The quantity of labor supplied did not respond much to the change in wage. Elasticity was less than 1 , so supply was inelastic.

Let’s now calculate some elasticities graphically. Let’s begin by determining the price elasticity of demand between points $A$ and $B$ in Figure 6-1(a).

The demand curve in the figure is a hypothetical demand for WolfPack Simulation Software. You can see that as the price of the software rises from $\$ 20$to$\$26$, the quantity demanded falls from 14,000 to 10,000 units a year. To determine the price elasticity of demand, we need to determine the percentage change in quantity and the percentage change in price. In doing so, there is a small problem that is sometimes called the endpoint problem: The percentage change differs depending on whether you view the change as a rise or a decline. For example, say you calculate the rise in price from $\$ 20$to$\$26$, starting from $\$ 20$. That gives you a percentage increase in price of$[(20-26) / 20] \times 100=30$percent. If, however, you calculate that same change in price,$\$6$, as a fall in price from $\$ 26$to$\$20$, the percentage decrease in price is $[(26-20) / 26] \times 100=23$ percent. The easiest way to solve this problem is to use the average of the two end values to calculate percentage change. In our example, instead of using 20 or 26 as a starting point, you use $(20+26) / 2$, or 23 . So the percentage change in price is
$$\frac{P_2-P_1}{1 / 2\left(P_1+P_2\right)}=\frac{(26-20)}{23} \times 100=26 \text { percent }$$
Similarly, the percentage change in quantity is
$$\frac{Q_2-Q_1}{1 / 2\left(Q_1+Q_2\right)}=\frac{(10-14)}{12} \times 100=-33 \text { percent }$$
Having done this, we can calculate elasticity as usual by dividing the percentage change in quantity by the percentage change in price: 1
$$\text { Elasticity }=\frac{\text { Percentage change in quantity }}{\text { Percentage change in price }}=\frac{-33}{26}=1.27$$
The elasticity of demand between points $A$ and $B$ is approximately 1.3. This means that a 10 percent increase in price will cause a 13 percent fall in quantity demanded. Thus, demand between $A$ and $B$ is elastic.

# 微观经济学代考

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|Calculating Elasticities

$$\frac{P_2-P_1}{1 / 2\left(P_1+P_2\right)}=\frac{(26-20)}{23} \times 100=26 \text { percent }$$

$$\frac{Q_2-Q_1}{1 / 2\left(Q_1+Q_2\right)}=\frac{(10-14)}{12} \times 100=-33 \text { percent }$$

$$\text { Elasticity }=\frac{\text { Percentage change in quantity }}{\text { Percentage change in price }}=\frac{-33}{26}=1.27$$
$A$和$B$点之间的需求弹性约为1.3。这意味着价格上涨10％将导致需求量下降13％。因此，$A$和$B$之间的需求是有弹性的。

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|From a Supply Table to a Supply Curve

statistics-lab™ 为您的留学生涯保驾护航 在代写微观经济学Microeconomics方面已经树立了自己的口碑, 保证靠谱, 高质且原创的统计Statistics代写服务。我们的专家在代写微观经济学Microeconomics代写方面经验极为丰富，各种代写微观经济学Microeconomics相关的作业也就用不着说。

## 经济代写|微观经济学代写Microeconomics代考|From a Supply Table to a Supply Curve

Figure 4-7(b) takes the information in Figure 4-7(a)’s supply table and translates it into a graph of each supplier’s supply curve. For instance, point $C_A$ on Ann’s supply curve corresponds to the information in columns 1 and 2, row $C$. Point $C_A$ is at a price of $\$ 2$per movie and a quantity of two movies per week. Notice that Ann’s supply curve is upward sloping, meaning that price is positively related to quantity. Charlie’s and Barry’s supply curves are similarly derived. The supply curve represents the set of minimum prices an individual seller will accept for various quantities of a good. The market’s invisible hand stops suppliers from charging more than the market price. If suppliers could escape the market’s invisible hand and charge a higher price, they would gladly do so. Unfortunately for them, and fortunately for consumers, a higher price encourages other suppliers to begin selling movies. Competing suppliers’ entry into the market sets a limit on the price any supplier can charge. Individual and Market Supply Curves The market supply curve is derived from individual supply curves in precisely the same way that the market demand curve was. To emphasize the symmetry, I’ve made the three suppliers quite similar to the three demanders. Ann (column 2) will supply two at$\$2$; if price goes up to $\$ 4$, she increases her supply to four. Barry (column 3) begins supplying at$\$2$, and at $\$ 6$supplies five, the most he’ll supply regardless of how high price rises. Charlie (column 4) has only two units to supply. At a price of$\$7$ he’ll supply that quantity, but higher prices won’t get him to supply any more.

## 有限元方法代写

tatistics-lab作为专业的留学生服务机构，多年来已为美国、英国、加拿大、澳洲等留学热门地的学生提供专业的学术服务，包括但不限于Essay代写，Assignment代写，Dissertation代写，Report代写，小组作业代写，Proposal代写，Paper代写，Presentation代写，计算机作业代写，论文修改和润色，网课代做，exam代考等等。写作范围涵盖高中，本科，研究生等海外留学全阶段，辐射金融，经济学，会计学，审计学，管理学等全球99%专业科目。写作团队既有专业英语母语作者，也有海外名校硕博留学生，每位写作老师都拥有过硬的语言能力，专业的学科背景和学术写作经验。我们承诺100%原创，100%专业，100%准时，100%满意。

## MATLAB代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。